This is a 3D model of an interactive 3D model of air operated pneumatic control valve.
3D Model Annotations
Pneumatic Control Valve.
This valve is an air close, spring open, globe valve. Air pressure at approximately 6 bar (87 psi) is applied to the top of the diaphragm to close the valve. Air is then bled from the pneumatic line to open the valve. Springs return the valve to the open position should the air supply fail, thus the fail-safe position of the valve is ‘open’.
Valves are often fitted with a position indicator. Green or yellow is used to symbolise open, whilst red symbolises closed; the letters O and S are also used to indicate open and closed respectively. For a mixing valve, numbers such as 25, 50, 75 and 100, indicate the percentage of the maximum flow rate through the valve.
An actuator is used to actuate (change the position) of a valve. All valves require some means of actuation to move from the open to close position, or vice versa. Valve actuation is usually achieved using mechanical (hand lever, handwheel, spring etc.), pneumatic (piston, diaphragm etc.), hydraulic (piston), or electrical means (electric motor). This valve is a pneumatically actuated valve.
The body forms the main pressure boundary of all valves and must be constructed from suitable materials to withstand the service pressure to which it will be subjected. It is often cast as a single piece, although it is possible to construct the body from several pieces.
Valves are often named after the type of disc they employ e.g. ball valve, plug valve etc. Discs may be linearly actuated (gate, and globe valves etc.), or rotary actuated (ball and plug valves etc.); this valve is a linearly actuated straight-body globe valve.
The valve disc presses against the valve seat. It is imperative that the disc and seat surfaces remain clean. If the seat or disc surfaces are damaged, or not clean, it will not be possible to obtain a seal between the seat and disc; this will lead to the valve passing (leaking) when in the closed position.
The stem connects the actuator to the disc. Stems must be strong enough to withstand the mechanical actuation stresses they are subjected to during operation, this is particularly true for large rotary operated (1/4 turn) valves, where the torsional stresses encountered during actuation are significant.
Many valves require a bonnet. A valve bonnet allows personnel to access a valve’s internals (known as ‘valve trim’) without needing to dismount the valve. The bonnet is attached to the valve body using nuts and bolts (or studs). Gaskets are used to seal the space between the bonnet and body.
Flanges are attached to the valve body; they allow for associated piping to be attached.
Packing is installed between the stem and bonnet to ensure the valve does not leak. Packing can be periodically adjusted so that a constant pressure is maintained on the packing gland, which reduces the likelihood of leakage. Overtightening the packing makes the valve difficult to operate and may also lead to damage of the valve stem.
Springs return the valve to the open position as the air pressure acting upon the top of the diaphragm decreases.
A diaphragm separates the lower and upper parts of the diaphragm case. The diaphragm provides a large contact area upon which the pneumatic pressure acts. A larger contact area means that the same force can be applied upon that area, but at a lower pressure. Lower pressures decrease the mechanical stresses the valve components are subjected to, whilst also allowing lower pressure rated components to be used in the pneumatic control system (compressors, piping, valves etc.).
The diaphragm casing houses the diaphragm and springs. Springs may be installed above or below the diaphragm depending upon the valve design.
Pneumatic air is supplied to the diaphragm casing through this connection. A solenoid bleed valve would be installed on the supply line to bleed the pressure from the diaphragm casing when desired.